Charles B Knox Gelatine Co. Inc.
Edition of
The Old Mohawk-Turnpike Book

On East Creek, DOLGEVILLE.
Showing factories of the felt shoe industry, of which
Dolgeville is the center.


The Old Mohawk Turnpike Book



Author of

Old Fort Plain and the Middle Mohawk Valley
The Home and Name of Herkimer
The New York to Buffalo Book

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"A message to kindle anew the Mohawk fires and restore the name and fame of the valley."


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A Historical and Present-day Description of the Mohawk Valley, from Schenectady to Rome, traversed by this Historic Road - originally the Iroquois Trail, later the King's Highway, a Revolutionary Military Road, the freight and stage road incorporated as the Mohawk Turnpike in 1800, later paralleled by the Erie and Barge Canals and the New York Central Lines, and today the Mohawk River Section of the World's Greatest Automobile Route - the New York to Buffalo Highway. Turnpike Mileage Distances from All Points to All Points, Historical, Descriptive and Points of Interest Summary, with Detours. Illustrated with many Valley Views, Maps, Etc.

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The First Edition of the Book was issued for


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Copyright, 1924, by Nelson Greene, Publisher
Fort Plain, New York
Composition by O'Connor Brothers
Fort Plain, New York
Press of the Journal and Courier
Little Falls, New York


  --- I have therefore concerted with General Clinton to make a tour to reconnoitre those places, where the most remarkable posts were established and the ground which became famous for being the scene of action in 1777.

  On our return from thence, we propose to pass across the Mohawk river, in order to have a view of that tract of country, which is so much celebrated for the fertility of its soil and the beauty of its situation.

  Letter of General Washington (at Newburgh) to General Philip Schuyler (at Albany), July 15, 1783.



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Mohawk Valley Historic Association, Inc.

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Honorary Life President, COL. JOHN W. VROOMAN
Herkimer, N. Y.


2409 Whitesboro St., Utica, N. Y.


322 State St., Schenectady, N. Y.


91 Market Hill, Amsterdam, N. Y.



Oneida Co. Historical Society

Herkimer Co. Historical Society
LOOMIS BURREL; Little Falls, N. Y

Montgomery Co. Historical Society
CHARLES F. McCLUMPHA; Amsterdam, N. Y.

Johnstown Historical Society, Fulton Co.
HON. JEREMIAH KECK; Johnstown, N. Y.

Schenectady Co. Historical Society
LOUIS M. KING; Schenectady, N. Y.

Schoharie County Historical Society
HON. LYMAN S. HOLMES; Schoharie, N. Y.

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The Association was organized August 6, 1920 (143d Anniversary Battle of Oriskany), at the Herkimer Home (State Reservation). The organizations hereinafter named were each represented by delegates who were present and under their auspices, with other organizations joining later, the work will be carried on.

Historical Societies: Oneida, Herkimer, Johnstown (Fulton Co.), Montgomery, Schenectady, Schoharie.

The Herkimer Home Commission, Gen. Herkimer Homestead Association, Chapters of the Sons of the American Revolution, located at Herkimer and Schenectady.

Chapters of the Daughters of the American Revolution located at Rome, Oriskany, Utica, Frankfort, Ilion, Herkimer, Jordanville, Little Falls, Dolgeville, St. Johnsville, Fort Plain, Canajoharie, Fonda, Gloversville, Johnstown, Amsterdam, Schenectady, Beukendaal.

U.S. Daughters 1812 (Herkimer County Chapter), Ilion Colony and Utica Colony New England Women.

Auto Clubs: Little Falls, Fulton County, Schenectady.

"Read as You Ride"








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The run from Albany to Schenectady is 15 miles over the old Mohawk and Hudson turnpike (or Albany turnpike), which forms virtually a part of the Old Mohawk Turnpike. Its course is two miles less than that of the New York Central railroad, 17 miles, as it avoids the railroad curves, necessary to the rise to the Mohawk-Hudson divide, 400 ft., reached at Karners, 8 miles (by railroad) west of Albany. This New York Central section was the Mohawk and Hudson RR., the first (1831) steam link of the New York Central lines. The New York to Buffalo Highway, westward of Albany is known as a whole, as the Albany-Buffalo Highway (299 miles) and as the Iroquois Trail, because the great Iroquois Indian Confederation lay on this entire route. The run westward, from Albany to Utica to Syracuse, lies for 101 miles in the Mohawk valley - Karners to 13 miles west of Utica and 3 miles east of Vernon.

New York Central railroad stations, between Albany and Schenectady, going west, are West Albany, 3 miles (where Central railroad car shops are located), Karners, 8 m., and Carman, 13 m. This railroad section has a great freight and warehouse district.

Miles From
Miles from
 0 95   



By New York Central R.R., New York, 159 m.; Buffalo, 280 m. Schenectady is 17 m. from Albany by railroad and 15 m. by highway, Troy 15 m. Schenectady sea elevation, 211 ft. Sea elevations herein refer to the lowest water level at the points mentioned. Schenectady is known as the "Electric City" and "Old Dorp," meaning old town. Its slogan is "Schenectady lights and hauls the world."

N.Y., 164 m.; Buff., 284 m. by highway. 1920 population, 88,273; with suburbs about 100.000. Greatest electrical manufacturing city in the world. General Electric Co. (located here 1886) is State's largest industry. Great locomotive works here (established 1845). The General Electric Co. is the center of important electrical research, invention and development and perfection of the locomotive is constantly being carried on. The entire Mohawk valley is an important industrial section where great inventions have been made.

Baseballs, varnish, knit goods, etc., made here.

Aviation landing field at Schenectady.

Union College (founded 1795) was first American non-sectarian college; first college engineering course here established 1845; first electrical engineering course established 1895.

At Union is John Howard Payne Memorial Gate, in honor of the author of "Home Sweet Home," once a student here. U. S. President C. A. Arthur was a graduate of Union.

Among historical Colonial buildings are: St. George's Church, 1762; Abraham Yates house, 1710; Governor Yates house, 1735; Campbell house, 1762; Glen and Sanders houses (where Washington was entertained). Schenectady Historical Society has interesting collections open free to the public. Indian statue marks site of Queen's Fort, built in 1705. State Armory Cos. E, F, and M (Machine Gun Co.), 105th Inf., New York National Guard. County seat of Schenectady county.

French Canada was conquered in 1760 by an American-British army of 10,000 under Gen. Amherst, which mobilized at Schenectady and Scotia and went west through the Mohawk valley to Oswego and thence to Montreal, capital of New France, which surrendered.

Three settlers reported here in 1658. City settled by Hollanders from Fort Orange (Albany) under leadership of Arent Van Curler, 1661-62, during Dutch rule of New Netherland (New York). Schenectady signifies the "place at the end of the open pines" - the great Indian trail between the sites of Schenectady and Albany. Town destroyed in terrible massacre by French and Indians in 1690. Dutch, English and American forts here, 1661-1783 and place an important Colonial and Revolutionary military post and center and the busy terminus of Mohawk river traffic, 1662-1825. Created a borough in 1765; Union College established 1795; chartered a city in 1798, fourth in New York. River bridge built, 1808. First link of New York Central was the Mohawk & Hudson Railroad, from Albany to Schenectady, chartered 1826, opened 1831; Utica & Schenectady Railroad opened 1836; Albany-Buffalo telegraph line run along New York Central, Schenectady to Rome, 1845. Locomotive manufacturing begun 1845. Railroad air brake invented here, 1869. General Electric Co. located here, 1886. Mohawk Golf club on Troy road.

"Artificial" lightning produced here (1922) by Steinmetz. Radio sets made here and the General Electric Co., Schenectady, is (1922) a radio broadcasting station, W G Y .

Trolley service, including passenger and express, to Albany, Troy, Watervliet, Ballston, Saratoga, Glens Falls, Warrensburg, Lake George, Amsterdam, Fonda, Johnstown and Gloversville, serving nearly half a million people.

Roads north to Saratoga and Lake George, est to Albany and Troy, southwest to Schoharie river. Railroads, New York Central, Delaware & Hudson, Schenectady Railway Co.

Bus lines to Mariaville, Carmen, Rotterdam Junction, Burnt Hills and Ballston Lake, Guilderland Center, Central Bridge.



At Schenectady, highway and railroads cross the Mohawk river, from the south to the north bank, by bridges.

The New York to Buffalo Highway crosses the Mohawk over the Great Western Gateway bridge (probably completion in 1924), one of America's longest concrete bridges and so called because it is at the eastern entrance to the Mohawk valley, the "Gateway of America," over the water-level route.

The bridge crosses the Mohawk river,135 miles long, which forms the canalized channel of the New York State Barge canal west to Frankfort, 70 m. The is the eastern or Mohawk section (117 m. long from Waterford to Rome) of the Barge canal, Erie division (353 miles long from Waterford to Buffalo).. The area of the Mohawk river watershed is 3,485 miles. The Mohawk valley forms a part of the great Hudson valley, the Mohawk entering the Hudson at Cohoes. Albany-Buffalo tourist boats on Barge canal here have been projected (1923).

The 1920 population of the six Mohawk valley counties - Schenectady, Montgomery, Fulton, Herkimer, Oneida and Schoharie - was 481,315.

Besides being the nation's greatest combined rail, highway and water route, the Mohawk valley carries one of America's great electric power transmission lines. The beautiful Mohawk valley is also famous as one of the most picturesque regions of North America.



The Great Western Gateway Bridge leads to the Old Mohawk Turnpike, starting its westward course at Scotia, on the north bank of the Mohawk opposite Schenectady. The Old Mohawk Turnpike and the Mohawk river and old Erie canal (1825-1917) formed a great highway and waterway route over which hundreds of thousands of settlers migrated to people the great west. In the 80-mile route to Utica there was a tavern for every mile, many of which, now farmhouses or dwellings, are still standing. This emigration traffic later went over the New York Central railroad. The Old Mohawk Turnpike forms the central section of the New York-Buffalo Highway which runs through the Mohawk valley for 101 miles - from Karners, 7 m. west of Albany, to 3 m. east of Vernon, 13 m. west of Utica.

The motorist is now running over the Old Mohawk Turnpike. Its westward course to Rome passes through about 15 m. of city and village streets and about 80 m. of picturesque and productive farming country, the Mohawk river flats being among the most fertile lands in the world, the black soil having a depth of 15 feet in places. Dairying is the principal agricultural occupation with hay, oats, barley, buckwheat the principal crops, besides considerable fruit production. Southern middle Mohawk valley was once a hop-raising section. The valley is one of the country's greatest hay-raising sections.

The 15 miles of city and village streets you pass through, comprise on of America's important industrial sections, with 100,000 manufacturing operatives. Its industries are here briefly summarized, under the different towns, where many of the greatest inventions of the world have been conceived and perfected.

During the entire 95-mile Schenectady to Rome route side roads lead from the Turnpike north and south to many resorts and much picturesque and attractive country of fields, forest, rivers, mountains and lakes, the great Adirondack region lying 10 to 20 miles north of the Turnpike throughout its course from Schenectady to Utica, 80 m.

In this book and its Summary, the north and south shore Mohawk turnpikes are considered as one, paralleling each other as they do and running so closely together. In 1922 only the Old Mohawk Turnpike on the north shore was improved thorughout is entire length of 95 miles, but the south shore turnpike will doubtless soon be similarly improved to take its share of the great motor car traffic through the Mohawk valley. In 1922 a project was launched by State Engineer Williams to make the old Erie canal towpath into a turnpike, extending through the Mohawk valley and from Albany to Buffalo, to help care for the grreat load of motor and truck traffic over this world's greatest automobile route - the New York to Buffalo highway, including the Old Mohawk Turnpike.



The New York Central Mohawk division runs from Albany to Schenectady (17m.) through the Mohawk valley to Rome (108 m.), thence south of Oneida lake, to Syracuse (148). Its course lies for exactly 100 miles in the Mohawk valley, which was the scene of the main early development of the New York Central lines. The Mohawk and Hudson (Albany to Schenectady) Railroad, opened 1831, was the first steam road of the present Central lines. The Utica & Schenectady Railroad was opened in 1836 and the Utica & Syracuse Railroad in 1839, completing the present Mohawk division of the New York Central - America's greatest railroad system.



Population 1920, 4,358. Suburb and virtual part of Schenectady but separate village corporation chartered 1904.

Glen-Sanders house (1713), property 260 years, in 1921, in same family. First settled, 1658, by Alexander Glen, a Scotchman, and named by him, Scotia, Latin for Scotland. Site of Colonial military camp (1754-1760). Barge canal Lock No. 8 and Dam No. 4 here. Railroad station, Boston & Maine R. R.

At Scotia, diagonally across the street from the Glen-Sanders house, is the Abraham Glen frame house (built 1730), now the summer home of sister connected with St. John's school.

Two miles west of Scotia the cellar of old DeGraff house marks site of battle of Beukendaal (1748), where Schenectady militiamen were ambushed by Canadian Indians.



By West Shore R.R., New York, 160 m.; Buffalo, 273 m. By highway, New York, 169 m.; Buffalo, 275 m. 1920 population, 1,500. Sea elevation, 240 ft.

Five miles west of the city of Schenectady, on the south shore highway and West Shore R.R., is Rotterdam Junction (Boston & Maine Railroad bridge connection). Barge canal Lock No. 9 and Dam No. 5. River dam bridge over which tourist may cross to see Mabie house (built 1670), oldest in the Mohawk valley. On south shore here rises Yantapuchaberg, 1,400 feet above sea level and 1,160 feet above Mohawk, one of highest Mohawk river mountains. Name is Dutch for "John-ear-of-corn-mountain," pronounced "Yan-ta-poosh-a-berg."

Much highway traffic from Schenectady goes west over south shore turnpike to Rotterdam Junction Barge canal bridge, there crossing to north side. South shore turnpike will probably be improved, from Schenectady to Rome, within a few years.

On the south shore, two miles west of Rotterdam and opposite Hoffmans Ferry, it the little village of Pattersonville, which is a West Shore R.R. station.



By New York Central R.R., New York, 168 m.; Buffalo, 271 m. Sea elevation, 240 ft.

New York, 173 m.; Buffalo, 275 m., by highway. New York Central (slow freight) bridge connecting with West Shore R. R. An old ferry is located here (1921). Wolf Hollow was the site of a great Mohawk Indian battle and victory over the Mohicans in 1669. Road through it leads up and over Touareuna mountain (1,100 ft. high and 857 ft. above Mohawk river), to Saratoga cross country. Touareuna is Mohawk for "neighboring hills."

The Mohawk name for the Indian battlefield and ridge was Kin-quar-i-ones, meaning "she-arrow-maker." It was the site of a World war National Guard camp in 1917.



By highway, New York, 177 m.; Buffalo, 271 m. Settled by Holland Dutch before 1690.

Barge canal Lock No. 10, Dam No. 6, four miles west of Hoffmans at Cranesville, where Mohawk river section Barge canal work was started, 1905.

Here are the pretty falls of the Adriutha, close to Turnpike.



By New York Central R.R., New York, 175 m.; Buffalo, 264 m. Sea elevation, 255 ft.; known as "the Carpet City," on account of its extensive manufactures of rugs and carpets. In 1922 it had probably become the first rug and carpet manufacturing city in the United States and in the world.

New York, 180 m.; Buffalo, 268 m., by highway. 1920 population, 33,524. Bridge here across Mohawk. Made a village in 1831, chartered a city in 1885, taking in Port Jackson village on south side. On the picturesque North and South Chuctanunda (meaning "stony"). Great manufacturing center, with rugs, carpets, knit goods, brooms, silk gloves, wool yarn, pearl buttons, box board and paper boxes, linseed oil and machinery as the chief manufactures.

First settlement by William Johnson (later Sir William Johnson) on south side in 1738. Section settled by Holland Dutch and named for Amsterdam, chief city of Holland. Guy Park, built 1766 by Sir William Johnson, historical museum, under care of D. A. R., open free to public. State Armory here of Co. G, 105th Inf., New York National Guard. Here is the Voorhees house (built 1785), once a famous Old Mohawk Turnpike tavern.

Roads north to the Adirondacks, northeast to Saratoga and Lake George. Barge canal Lock No. 11, Dam No. 7, here. Sanford race horse stock farm at Rockton, just north.

Electric railway connection with Schenectady, Albany and Troy to the east and Fonda, Johnstown and Gloversville to the west and northwest.

Bus line to Broadalbin.



By New York Central R.R., New York, 178 m.; Buffalo, 261 m.; by highway, New York, 183 m.; Buffalo, 265 m. Sea elevation, 267 ft. 1920 population, 660.

Fort Johnson (1749), fortified baronial home of Sir William Johnson, owned by the Montgomery County Historical Society, historical museum open free to the public. This was an important Colonial British fort (1754-60).

Fort Johnson is one of the most important Colonial buildings standing in America. It is one of only two baronial mansions in the country, the other being Johnson Hall at Johnstown. Johnson is one of America's greatest historical figures. Fort Johnson stands as originally erected and houses interesting historical collections and the most important Mohawk Indian relic collections in existence. See detailed description in the body of this book.

Antlers club and golf links is at the eastern end of Tribes Hill.



By New York Central R.R., New York, 181 m.; Buffalo, 258 m.; by highway, New York, 186 m.; Buffalo, 262 m. Sea elevation, 278 ft. Combined 1920 population of Tribes Hill and Fort Hunter, about 1,000.

Parsonage (1712) of Queen Anne's chapel (P.E.), is at Fort Hunter - site of Iconderoga, lower castle of the Wolf Clan of Mohawks, 1700-1775, site of Fort Hunter, British fort, 1711-1775; American fort, 1776-1783.

The Schoharie river has its outlet here into the Mohawk, west side of Tribes Hill-Fort Hunter. Optional detour to Johnstown, 6 m., northwest, which road runs to Adirondack region. Barge canal Lock No. 12, Dam No. 8, here. Fort Hunter named for British Colonial Governor Hunter; Tribes Hill from being the site of Og-sa-da-go, tribal village of the Mohawks (1693-1700). Bridge here across Mohawk river.

Roads to Johnstown and electric trolley railway runs northwest to Johnstown and Gloversville, with connection to Fonda.

On Mohawk Turnpike, one mile west of Tribes Hill, at mouth of Dadanoscara, is the DeGraff house, originally built by Col. Visscher. Revolutionary house here was burned in 1780 by Indians, although heroically defended by Col. Visscher and brothers; latter killed. Visscher wounded and scalped but recovered. In Dadanoscara glen, the Mohawk are said to have worshipped the Wolf Spirit.

Two miles west of Fort Hunter, on the south shore, is



By highway, New York, 188 m.; Buffalo, 260 m.; sea elevation, 278 ft. Station on the West Shore R.R.

The shrine at Auriesville marks the site of the martyrdom of the French Jesuit priest and missionary to the Mohawks, Father Isaac Jogues, here slain by Mohawks in 1646. This shrine is annually visited by thousands. Here was located the Mohawk village of Osseruenon from 1640 until 1666, when it was burned by a French-Canadian Indian war party, which destroyed all the Mohawk castles.

The Order of Alhambra, in 1922, here erected a statue of Father Jogues and a statue of Tegahkwita was here erected in 1923. Te-gah-kwi-ta, a Mohawk maiden was born here and is known as the "Lily of the Mohawks."



By New York Central R.R., New York, 186 m.; Buffalo, 253 m.; sea elevation, 278 ft. Fonda sometimes called "Caughnawaga," its original name, meaning "at the rapids."

New York, 191 m.; Buffalo, 257 m., by highway. 1920 population, Fonda, 1,171; Fultonville, 869. Bridge here across Mohawk. Knit glove linings, silk cloth, hosiery, brooms and mop wringers chief manufactures.

Butler house (1743) on Switzer hill; Major Fonda house (1791); scene of Indian-Tory massacre, 1780. One mile west is site of Kahaniaga, Mohawk castle (1666-1693) attacked by Mohicans, 1669; burned by French-Indians, 1693. Site of Jesuit mission of St. Peter, 1666. Western valley terminus (1921) of electric road to Schenectady, Albany and Troy; electric road to Johnstown-Gloversville; terminus of Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville R.R. County seat of Montgomery county; county fair held here every Fall. Neighborhood settled by Hollanders, 1715-1720, and known as Caughnawaga up to 1851, when village was chartered as Fonda, name coming from pioneer Fonda (Hollander) family. Fultonville village charter in 1848. Cayadutta ("rippling waters") creek enters Mohawk at Fonda, on the banks of which stream 4 m. and 8 m north lie Johnstown-Gloversville. Fultonville named for Fulton, steamboat inventor.

For detour to Johnstown-Gloversville, when going west, take first turn to right (north) just past Central station, past Reformed church on Johnstown highway or "Sacandaga Trail," to



By highway from Johnstown, New York, 195 m.; Buffalo, 261 m.; from Gloversville, New York, 199 m.; Buffalo, 265 m. Sea elevation, Johnstown, 640 ft.; Gloversville, 720 ft. Aeroplane landing field at Johnstown.

1920 population, Johnstown, 10,447; Gloversville, 22,075. Johnstown Hall (1763), fortified baronial home of Sir William Johnson, under the care of the Johnstown Historical Society, historical museum open free to the public; raided by Sir John Johnson's Tories and Indians, 1780; marker shows site of Battle of Johnstown, 1781; statue of Sir William Johnson; Drumm house, 1763; court house, 1772; jail, 1772, the Fort Johnstown (1776) of the Revolution; Black Horse tavern (1790); old Masonic building (1794); Union hall (1798); academy building (1798); Colonial cemetery; grave of Sir William Johnson in St. John's churchyard. On old Mohawk trail to Canada, roads northwest to Canada Lake region; roads northeast through Adirondacks to Sacandaga, Lake Pleasant, Speculator and Indian Lake and Lake George and Lake Champlain.

Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville R.R. to terminus at Northville, on the Sacandaga river.

Bus lines from Johnstown to Garoga and Canada lakes; from Gloversville to Mountain Lake and Garoga and Canada lakes.

Electric trolley railway south to Fonda and southwest to Tribes Hill, Amsterdam and Schenectady.

American glove manufacturing originated in Gloversville about 1810 and today Johnstown and Gloversville make 80 per cent of the country's gloves, their manufacture being the main industry of the two cities. Johnstown was settled under Sir William Johnson about 1759, by Scotch, Irish, Dutch and Germans. Gloversville was settled about 1784 by New Englanders, who started glove making. Johnstown was incorporated as a village in 1808, Gloversville in 1851. Gloversville chartered a city in 1890, Johnstown in 1895. At Gloversville is State Armory of Co. H, 105th Inf.., New York National Guard. Johnstown, the birthplace of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, influential pioneer suffragist, and Gov. Enos T. Throop (1830-1832).

Glove making is Johnstown's principal industry. Here gelatine is made in one of the world's model food factories.

Johnstown is the county seat of Fulton county (set off from Montgomery in 1838). Place was county seat of Tryon county 1772-1784, in latter year name being changed to Montgomery county and Johnstown continued its county seat until 1836, when Fonda became seat of Montgomery county (present Fulton and Montgomery county).

Fulton - Hamilton counties fair is held annually at Gloversville.

Gloversville is the greatest glove making center in the world with 120 glove factories and a number of leather tanneries. It is a growing silk manufacturing center with improtant hardwood industries. Its slogan is "Gloversville gloves America." Gloversville is an Adirondack city, lying directly at the edge of the Adirondack mountains and forests. It is the "Gateway City of the Adirondacks."

Returning to the Old Mohawk Turnpike at Fonda, the next point west is



By New York Central R.R., New York, 191 m.; Buffalo, 248 m.; by highway, New York 197 m.; Buffalo, 251 m; sea elevation, 286 ft.

Yosts was named from pioneer Yost (Holland Dutch) family. Just west are "the Noses," forming the lower "uplift" of the Mohawk, the upper one being Fall Hill, at Little Falls. Big Nose (North Nose) 940 ft. sea el., and 654 ft. above Mohawk river. During the glacial period a cataract rivaling Niagara poured over the Nose ridge, now worn through by ice and water erosion. Rattlesnakes on Kanajora creek 1-1/2 m. w.

The Adirondack forest here comes to the Mohawk, at the only point on the Mohawk Turnpike. Nose ridge and woods runs north to Klip Hill and Mayfield mountain in the Adirondacks north of Gloversville. From Amsterdam to Herkimer the Adirondack region lies from ten to twenty miles north of the Mohawk river.

Big Nose Inn dates back to Colonial days and the King's Highway, its original structure having been the Dockstader inn, an early Turnpike tavern, built probably prior to 1775.

On the south shore turnpike, opposite Yosts, is the little village of Randall (population 150), a station on the West Shore R.R.



By New York Central R.R., New York, 194 m.; Buffalo, 245 m.; by highway, New York, 200 m.; Buffalo, 248 m.; sea elevation, 286 ft.

Sprakers village, on the south shore turnpike, is a station on the West Shore R.R.

Fine view of the Noses looking east. House at Central station was the famous Spraker (1795) river and Turnpike inn. Ferry to Sprakers (on south shore), where the upper Mohawk Indian castle of Te-non-to-ge-re was located from 1640 to 1666, when it was destroyed by French and Indian raiders. Its hill site forms the scene of the "Return of the Warriors," life-size Mohawk Indian group in Educational Building, Albany. Sprakers named from (German-Palatine) pioneer Spraker family. Fine views from North and South Shore Noses accessible by horse, wagon or on foot. Road southeast to Schoharie river valley.

About 1620, a French trader named Hartell married a Mohawk girl probably of this vicinity, and had two daughters, the first children of a white man born in the Mohawk valley. About 1640, Cornelius Van Slyck, a Holland Dutch trader and interpreter, located among the Mohawks, being probably the valley's first permanent white settler. Van Slyck's location was in this neighborhood, possibly at Tenontogere.


On to Summary, Part II




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